Greenhouse gas emissions
GHG emissions refer to all emissions that have a warming effect on the earth’s surface by trapping heat in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2) makes up the vast majority of GHG emissions, but other gases, including methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), also have a warming effect. CO2, methane and nitrous oxide are released during the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas, to produce energy. At ABB, we use the metric of CO2-equivalent (CO2e) to calculate our GHG emissions and to measure progress toward our emissions reduction targets.
Scope 1 GHG emissions
Direct emissions from company-owned and controlled resources, for example, emissions from combustion in owned or controlled boilers, furnaces, vehicles, etc.
Scope 2 GHG emissions
Indirect emissions from the generation of purchased energy (electricity, steam, heat, cooling) from a utility provider.
Scope 3 GHG emissions
All other indirect emissions not included in scope 2 that occur in the value chain, both upstream and downstream. According to the GHG protocol, scope 3 emissions are separated into 15 categories and include, for example, purchased goods and services, business travel and commuting, and use of sold products.